Around the world, obesity and diabetes are on the rise. Since 1980, rates of obesity and of diagnosed diabetes have doubled, with particularly sharp increases in low and middle-income populations. In one recent year, an estimated 1.5 million people died from diabetes, and millions more suffer from heart attack, stroke, blindness, kidney failure and lower-limb amputation.

There are numerous examples of people with learning disabilities and mental health disorders doing extraordinary things: the child on the autism spectrum who is masterful at putting together incredibly intricate Lego creations, the young person with Asperger’s syndrome who knows more about presidential history than most adults, the child with dyslexia who is a master chef in the kitchen.